An Issue Revisited: Is Hoodoo Still Hoodoo Without the Bible?

I have gotten quite a bit of flack for putting forth the question, Is Hoodoo still Hoodoo without the Bible? The flack comes from folks who are of the mindset that they "know" the true rootwork and Hoodoo tradition and that it MUST include the Bible in order to be "real" rootwork/conjure/Hoodoo. I reject that notion. I have always rejected that notion and I reject it more today than ever.

My point is that Africans did not come to these shores with Bibles in their hands. They came with their crude wooden fetishes, their gris gris, their bilongo. Some came with the Koran. A minority may have been converted to Christianity while still in Africa, but was the conversion natural? I mean, were Africans willing and wanting to convert from their traditional religions? Or were they, as the man in the clip below states, "converted at the end of a whip?"

Recently, there was a person subscribed to the Crossroads University email list who quit that list because she interpreted my stance as being antiChristian. This is the text from the Crossroads University website from which an email was excerpted that offended the individual:

"Our curriculum does not focus on Christian aspects of Hoodoo and conjure; rather, we focus on the spiritual and healing technologies of our ancestors as they were prior to Christian influences. Christianity is explored in its appropriate cultural context as a mechanism of colonization and cultural genocide. The adaptation of Christian precepts to Southern conjure is a phenomenon that occurred as a direct result of colonization, a process deserving of much needed attention...To teach indigenous spiritual and healing technologies without examining the historical contexts in which they are situated, however, is tantamount to cultural appropriation, evidence of ongoing colonial institutionalization and the perpetuation of a current narrative that is defined by nonindigenous and non African-descended people.  We reject the notion that Hoodoo is not Hoodoo without the Bible. On the contrary, it is much, much more."

You can read more of our philosophy on our website.

This person, no doubt a Christian, was offended, apparently. Okay, that's fine, they are entitled to their feelings. I am also however, entitled to speak the truth based on historical facts and if history offends you, then well it should.

Stating the facts is not being antiChristian. It is bringing to light the historical truth. The truth is that there is an ugly history with regards to Christianity and Hoodoo and my point is that if you want to learn from Crossroads University, you will also learn about this history. Those of you who are students know that we do not bad mouth the Bible or Christianity in any of our courses and in fact, we teach about the Saints and the psalms and Catholic elements quite a bit because Catholicism is deeply intertwined with Voodoo and Hoodoo in New Orleans. A direct result of the Black Code ( a perfect example of institutionalized colonization); but deeply connected nonetheless. And yes, as a student you will also see that we explore Protestant characteristics and the presence of the prophets in present day Hoodoo as well.

Over time, many folks adapted and adopted Christian concepts to the original indigenous beliefs and practices. Many...but not all. I have mixed feelings about this; on the one hand, it speaks to the resiliency of Africans and Native Americans (who suffered similarly) which I completely honor and respect. On the other hand, it makes me very sad to know that my ancestors were forced to practice a religion they did not want to practice and many suffered and died as a result.

Ninety-eight percent of the people online who are the most vocal about the absolute role of Christianity in Hoodoo are White. Since when did White folks get the front seat on the narrative of an indigenous tradition? Well, since the advent of colonization...that's how it goes. Back then, our ancestors didn't have a choice - they had no voice. Today is different. We have a voice and it is our responsibility to give voice to our ancestors.

Some of you reading this may think I am coming across as a bit racist. Not so. There is the issue of race in our history and its time we talked about it since everyone and their brother is selling our tradition and taking license to redefine it for us. Some of you will no doubt say color doesn't matter, that Hoodoo is a multicultural and multiracial tradition. Tell that to the young black man walking down the street in a hoodie nowadays. Tell that to the Native American whose sacrament is still considered illegal in many respects and possession of it is considered a crime. Color does matter; why do we take great pains to describe Hoodoo as multicultural if it doesn't?

It is out of respect that I bring this discussion to the forefront yet again. I do not deny the role of Christianity in Hoodoo and rootwork as we know it today. It's time for others to quit denying the ugly truth of the historical evolution of the tradition as well.

A few months ago I saw a clip from a new documentary "Ancestral Voices" that really resonated with me. Here is a clip from that documentary that I will be reviewing in an upcoming issue of Hoodoo and Conjure Magazine that speaks to the ideas I present in this article.

Copyright 2010-2012 Denise Alvarado, All rights reserved worldwide. Please ask if you would like to repost this article.



  1. Fantastic post. I agree with you 100%. I have to admit, I have been very disappointed with many of the rootworkers/voodoo/hoodoo practitioners who have blogs, websites or podcasts - and who use these forums to wage wars against anyone else who shows an interest in, practices, or whose business relates to these spiritual practices.

    I am so tired of reading why someone else is not the real thing and how he/she is.

    But - back to your post, I am very relieved to read an intelligent explanation about the Bible and Hoodoo. I am a white woman, not from the south, and I have absolutely no idea why I suddenly at the age of 40 (14 years ago) became very interested in these practices. I felt almost wrong for being interested in it then. Anyway, there were many areas that seemed so natural and intuitive to me and - well, just right. But the one thing I could just never embrace was the use of the bible.

    Then I read the aforementioned blog entries and the author's insistence that hoodoo is not hoodoo without the bible.

    And suddenly I once again wondered about my leanings in this area. Now I "happen" upon your wonderful post and it's all making sense to me.

    Thank you.

  2. Certainly not necessary, as effectiveness, linking Christianity to the magical tradition called Hoodoo / Rootwork, but what is known as Hoodoo tradition includes Christian elements, and tradition is not the same as that which existed in Africa since the traditional composite system and properly called Hoodoo is African American.
    Hoodoo is a tradition composed of several elements and Christianity is essential to its identity although it is not for the magical effectiveness. So one can not speak of Hoodoo without Christianity. Of course, the magic is in a ninety percent African, but what is presented in America that called Hoodoo does under Christian influence, though it bothers some.
    I know jobs in Hoodoo, that being of Bantu origin are almost in the same way in the Palo Mayombe, but do not say why it does not matter remove the Christian elements because the Mayombe does not take them into account. To this already exists the "Regla del Cristo del Buen Viaje".
    Be that as it has been at the origin that which exists today is not the same, not the same Hoodoo Voodoo, those who want to identify them by their African origins not respect things as they happened, and want to impose their own view of things .

  3. I think this sort of conflict comes about when folks confuse hoodoo with Pennsylvania-Dutch Braucherei. The latter is strictly Christian based. Once that little detail is dealt with, then one can choose which path fits then journey the path... :)

  4. Thankyou Denise!

  5. Awesome! Finally! A post that speaks the TRUTH!!! I am of Dominican decent and have been searching for a "little magic" with African roots. I was questioning following "hoodoo" for a while because of all the "hate" of other sites and blogs. But after reading your post, and finally reading what I believe, I feel more confident in learning more, including other African traditions (preferably those that are NOT tainted with Christianity!)

  6. Denise, you can delete my last sentence in my previous post! It accidentally submitted, without me reviewing what I wrote! Thank you!


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